Medical maps: Loss of responsiveness

A loss of consciousness (LOC) is the loss of awareness of the self and the surroundings. The clinical sign is a loss of responsiveness (LOR). I make the distinction between LOC and LOR for two reasons: There are some conditions, like psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, where it is unclear whether the patient has truly lost consciousness […]

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Clue cells.

Medical maps: Vaginal discharge

Discharge – a mixture of fluid and cells from the vagina – can be physiological or pathological. Discharge is considered distinct from bleeding, or from the release of amniotic fluid during spontaneous/artificial rupture of membranes. Features of physiological discharge Physiological discharge is common and may be perceived as pathological by the patient. The term leucorrhoea […]

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Ovarian cyst.

Medical maps: Pelvic pain

In the last medical map we talked about gynaecological bleeding. Now let’s move onto another key symptom: pain. I’ll talk about pelvic pain rather than gynaecological pain, because it is important to be aware of non-gynaecological causes of lower abdominal pain. The pattern of pain is important, and broadly speaking, there are three: Painful periods […]

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Fibroid histopathology.

Medical maps: Gynaecological bleeding

Abnormal vaginal bleeding can be acute or chronic. Acute bleeds are often related to pregnancy (ectopics, miscarriage) and I will discuss these pathologies in obstetrics. Here we will focus on chronic gynaecological bleeding issues. We can divide this into: Abnormal bleeding during reproductive ages – called ‘abnormal uterine bleeding’ (AUB) – the most important symptoms […]

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Graafian follicle.

Medical maps: Gynaecology overview

The purpose of this site is to share some of the approaches I adopted, adapted or developed when studying for medical finals. One of the first subjects I’m going to tackle is gynaecology, because (i) gynaecology has a discrete number of presenting complaints; (ii) I find gynaecology interesting and (iii) I had my O&G finals […]

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